The science of ground measurements comprises a series of main branches, which differentiate between them both through the object of activity and by the methods and instruments used in the measurement process, which mention:

Geodesy deals with the study, measurement and determination of the shape and dimensions of the Earth or large parts of its surface, as well as with the determination of the precise position of the fixed locations on the ground, forming the geodetic support network for the topographical measurements. Geodetic measurements, which are executed on large surfaces, take into account the Earth’s curvature effect.
Topography deals with the study, measurement and representation on land plans and maps of all landforms and existing reliefs. In the topographical measurements, which are executed on small surfaces, the curvature of the Earth is not taken into account.

Photogrammetry, deals with the recording, measurement and representation of objects or phenomena in space and time, using their photographic images bearing the name of photograms. Photogrammetric elevations are currently widely used due to the superior yield of the data collection and processing process, as well as the rapid methods of drawing topographical plans in analogous form and, more recently, in digital form.

Remote sensing
includes a set of techniques and technologies designed to tele-observe the Earth’s natural resources, plants, and airspace and interplanetary space, which is carried out with artificial satellites.

Cartography deals with the study of cartographic projections used to represent the surface of the Earth or portions of this surface to draw up, edit, and multiply the topographic maps.

The Cadastral survey
contains all the works necessary for identifying, measuring and displaying on the maps and cadastral plans of immovable property throughout the country, regardless of their destination and the owner. By introducing the cadastral survey, the knowledge and the provision of the cadastral data from the quantitative, qualitative and legal point of view of the real estate within a cadastral territory are made at all times.

The geographic information system, also known as G.I.S. (Geographical Information System) is based on the use of computerized techniques necessary for the acquisition, storage, analysis and display of geographic data of the land surface, in the form of graphical and numerical reports. Geographic information systems perform the organization of information on spatial (geographical) criteria and on different levels of information (thematic plans).